Portable Gas Detectors

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Crowcon manufacture a complete range of both fixed and portable gas detection equipment for personal and plant protection against gas hazards across the globe. Based on a solid foundation of expertise in understanding of the core physics and chemistry of gas detection, Crowcon works closely with international bodies to ensure products are designed to industry leading equipment certification and performance standards.

WHAT IS GAS?

The name gas comes from the word chaos, which neatly summarises the main feature of the simplest state of matter. A gas is a swarm of particles moving randomly and chaotically, constantly colliding with each other and the walls of any container. The real volume of the particles is minute compared to the total space which they occupy and this is why gases fill any available volume and are readily compressed (Confined space). The average speeds of gas molecules are of the order of 100s of metres per second and they are colliding with each other billions of times per second. This is why gases mix rapidly and why they exert pressure.

This constant motion is easily demonstrated by releasing a small amount of odorous gas in a room. Within seconds the gas can be smelt in all parts of the room. These properties apply to substances, which are normally gaseous, and to vapours from evaporated liquids.

A volume of any gas at the same temperature and pressure contains the same number of molecules irrespective of what the gas is. This means that measuring gas by volume is very convenient. Gas measurements at higher levels are in % (volume) and at lower levels parts per million, ppm (volume).

Whilst different gases have different densities, they do not totally separate into layers according to their density. Heavy gases tend to sink and light gases tend to rise, but their constant motion means that there is continuous mixing (i.e they do not behave like liquids). This is why it is imperative to locate your Crowcon gas detecting sensors at the right location depending on the gas required to detect.

So in a room where there is a natural gas (methane) leak, the gas will tend to rise because it is lighter than air but the constant motion means that there can be some concentration at floor level. This will happen in perfectly still conditions but if there are any air currents, the mixing will be increased.

Air is a mixture of gases, typically:-

  • Nitrogen 77.2%
  • Oxygen 20.9% (Standard that is set on all Gas Monitors)
  • Water Vapour 0.9%
  • Argon 0.9%
  • Carbon Dioxide 0.03%
  • Other Gases 0.07%

Because its composition is reasonably constant, air is usually considered as a single gas, which simplifies the measurement of toxic and flammable gases for safety and health applications. So for any assistance regarding the Crowcon Gas Detection family, please contact us at Cebeco on (02) 9651 4220 or email us at sales@cebeco.com.au.

Crowcon – Gas Detection

FLAMMABLE RISK and COMBUSTIBLE GASES

Combustion of Gases and Vapours

Most organic chemical compounds will burn. Burning is a simple chemical reaction in which oxygen from the atmosphere combines rapidly with a substance, producing heat. The simplest organic compounds are those known as hydrocarbons and these are the main constituents of crude oil/gas. They are composed of carbon and hydrogen, the simplest hydrocarbon being methane, each molecule of which consists of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. It is the first compound in the family known as alkanes. The physical properties of alkanes change with increasing number of carbon atoms in the molecule, those with one to four being gases, those with five to ten being volatile liquids, those with 11 to 18 being fuel oils and those with 19 to 40 being lubricating oils. Longer carbon chain hydrocarbons are tars and waxes.

The first ten alkanes are:

  • CH4 Methane (gas) - C6H14 Hexane (liquid)
  • C2H6 Ethane (gas) - C7H16 Heptane (liquid)
  • C3H8 Propane (gas) - C8H18 Octane (liquid)
  • C4H10 Butane (gas) - C9H20 Nonane (liquid)
  • C5H12 Pentane (liquid) - C10H22 Decane (liquid)
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Products

  • Portable Gas Detectors

    Crowcon provide both single gas and multi-gas detectors for personal monitoring and portable safety applications, to provide protection against a wide range of industrial gas hazards. Models vary in size and complexity depending on

    • The number and type of gases that are to be detected
    • Display type and size
    • Certification requirements

    Single Gas Detectors

     


    Clip
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    - Easy to use
    - Event logging detector 
    - Display for H2S, CO or O2. 
    - Clip+ offers life extending hibernate function
    - Intrinsic safety, IECEx certified
     
     

    Gasman
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    - Single gas personal monitor
    - Flammable, Oxygen and Toxic Gases
    - Rechargeable battery option for all gas types
    - Sound, light and vibration alarm action
    - IP65/IP67 rated
    - Data and event logging as standard
     
    Gasman CO2 
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    - Infrared CO2 sensor version for safe area use
    - Simplest carbon dioxide monitoring for ambient air
    - Highly accurate infra-red sensing technology
    - Inherently reliable, shockproof and weather protected
    - Intelligent sensors and self-checking functionality
     
    LaserMethane Mini
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    - Pocket-size methane leak detection
    - ATEX approval
    - 30m range in standard mode, 100m with reflector
    - Compact and lightweight - only 600g
    - 5 hour battery
    - Automatic ranging
    - Mobile app available to save leak locations

    Multi-Gas Detectors


     
    Gas-Pro
     
    - Confined space entry monitor
    - Optional internal pump
    - +ve Safety™ tri-colour status indication
    - 5 Gas Monitor
    - Compact and rugged design
    - Single button operation
    - Li-ion battery, over 19hrs use from a 5hr charge
    - IP65/IP67 rated
    - Bump test and calibration functions
    - Data & event logging
     
    Tetra
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    - Optional internal pump
    - Extremely rugged construction, proven in mining applications
    - Infra-red CO2 sensor version for safe area use
    - Red/blue visual alarm, vibrating alarm
    - IP65 ingress protection
    - Simultaneous 4 gas display with automatic backlight
    - Peak mode operation
    - TWA reading recall
    - Data & event logging


    Tetra-3
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    - 4-gas personal monitor oxygen, toxic and flammable gases
    - Small and lightweight design
    - Infra-red CO2 sensor version for safe area use
    - Single button operation for all functions, can be operated with gloved hands
    - Rugged impact resistant design, IP67 rated, submersible
    - Lithium-ion battery, over 16 hours continuous operation
    - 95 dBa audible alarm, red/blue visual alarm and vibrating alarm as standard
    - Top mounted, backlit display of all gas readings, diagnostics and battery life
     
    T3 Gas Tester
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    - Allows gas testing of T3 instruments
    - Flammable gas
    - Oxygen
    - Carbon monoxide
    - Hydrogen sulphide
    - Carbon dioxide
    - Tester can ‘bump’ all four gases in the instrument within 60 seconds
     
    T4 Detector
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    - 4 Gas personal monitor oxygen, toxic and flammable gases
    - TWA Resume function, 18 hour battery life
    - Rechargeable Li-ion, Up to 18 hour runtime; 5.5 hour recharge
    - Intrinsically safe, Multiple alarms, Positive Safety indicator
    - Audible 95dB alarm, bright red/blue LED’s and vibrating alerts provide effective warning to gas hazards.
    - Large, clear display with backlight and option to flip the screen 180° for easy viewing whilst worn.
     
    Triple Plus+ IR
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    - Robust, field proven "Triax" case
    - Wide range of electrochemical oxygen and toxic gas sensors
    - Internal pump option
    - Large simultaneous four gas display with backlight
    - Loud audible and bright visual alarms
    - 3 alarm levels
    - Full timed data-logging file with 100 hour capacity
    - User and site names logging
    - User menu allows calibration without PC connection
    - Single range IR sensor 0-100%LEL with up to three other gas sensors
    - Dual range IR sensor 0-100%LEL/0-100% volume with up to two other gas sensors
    - Wide range of flammable hydrocarbon calibrations
    - 0-5% carbon dioxide infra-red sensor option

    Transportable-Area Detectors


     
    Detective+
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    - Transportable 4-gas area monitor
    - Ultra-loud 104 dBA sounder and red LED cluster alarms
    - Long 36 or 60 hour battery life
    - Raised detectors, with IP65 specification provides excellent sensor protection
    - Built-in pump option
    - 12 Detective+ units may be linked together, up to 100m from adjacent units
    - Via cable or intrinsically safe wireless modules



(Crowcon have a gas monitor to suit all applications)

The above compounds are all known as aliphatics. Alkenes are similar but their molecular structure includes double bonds. (Examples are ethylene and propylene.) Alkynes contain triple bonds. (Example is acetylene) Aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene have a ring molecular structure and burn with a smoky flame).

When hydrocarbons burn they react with oxygen from the atmosphere to produce carbon dioxide and water (although if the combustion is incomplete because there is insufficient oxygen, carbon monoxide will result as well). More complex organic compounds contain elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, chlorine, bromine or fluorine and if these burn, the products of combustion will include other compounds as well. For example substances containing sulphur such as oil or coal will result in sulphur dioxide whilst those containing chlorine such as methyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) will result in hydrogen chloride.

In most industrial environments where gas detection is required, there is the risk of explosion or fire because of the presence of flammable gases or vapours, a mixture of compounds is likely to be encountered. In the petrochemical industry, the raw materials are a mixture of chemicals many of which are decomposing naturally or are being altered, by the processes. For example crude oil is 'cracked' to produce many simpler materials.

Explosions

In order for gas to ignite there must be an ignition source typically a spark, or flame or hot surface. For ignition to take place there must be an explosive mixture. This means the concentration of gas or vapour in air must be at a level such that the 'fuel' and oxygen can react chemically.

The power of the explosion depends on the 'fuel' and its concentration in the atmosphere. This is why you would use a Crowcon Combustible Gas Monitor to ensure safe levels are kept to protect staff, equipment and the surrounding environment.

Not all concentrations of flammable gas or vapour in air will burn or explode.

The LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT(LEL): The lowest concentration (percentage) of a gas or a vapor in air capable of producing a flash of fire in presence of an ignition source (arc, flame, heat). The term is considered by many safety professionals to be the same as the lower flammable limit (LFL). At a concentration in air lower than the LEL, gas mixtures are "too lean" to burn. Portable gas detectors in Australia have set 5%LEL as its first alarm.

The UPPER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (UEL): Highest concentration (percentage) of a gas or a vapor in air capable of producing a flash of fire in presence of an ignition source (arc, flame, heat). Concentrations higher than UFL or UEL are "too rich" to burn.

Flammable liquids generally have a low FLASH POINT. This is the lowest temperature at which vapour is given off at sufficient rate to form an explosive mixture with air. Liquids with flash points below normal ambient temperatures automatically release vapour in sufficient volume to provide an explosive mixture, so leakage of such liquids is potentially as dangerous as a flammable gas leak.

VAPOUR DENSITY is a measure of the density of a gas or vapour relative to air. Gases or vapours with a vapour density of less than one are lighter than air and they tend to rise from the point of escape and may therefore be readily dispersed (or they may be trapped at a higher level).

Gases or vapours with a vapour density of greater than one are heavier than air and tend to sink to lower levels and will spread around forming concentrations between the LEL and UEL. Such heavy gases can remain trapped for a long time in ducts, inspection pits, etc, ready to explode as soon as a source of ignition is introduced.

When an explosive mixture of gas or vapour and air has developed, it can be ignited either by a spark of sufficient energy or if it is exposed to a surface at a sufficiently high temperature. The lowest temperature, which will cause a mixture to burn or explode, is called the IGNITION TEMPERATURE.

So for any assistance regarding the Crowcon Gas Detection family, please contact us at Cebeco on (02) 9651 4220 or email us at sales@cebeco.com.au.